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Author Guidelines

Refer to PAPER SUBMISSION for full information.

Authors must declare all potential interests in a ‘Conflicts of interest’ section, explaining why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state, “The author(s) declare(s) that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.” Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests.

Authors must declare current or recent funding (including article processing charges) and other payments, goods or services that might influence the work. All funding, whether a conflict or not, must be declared in the ‘Acknowledgments.’

The involvement of anyone other than the authors who 1) has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) is affiliated to an organization with such an interest; or 3) was employed or paid by a funder, in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript or the decision to publish must be declared.

Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.

  • The abstract follows ADS guidelines
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the paper submission ( section.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • A list of recommended qualified reviewers has been uploaded (PDF file).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word, PDF, or LaTex document file format.
  • Please include your full questionnaire as a supplementary file as part of your resubmission, this will be needed for the peer review process.
  • Starting May 1, 2023, all submissions are subject to $300 Article Processing Charges. For more details, refer to Publication Fee.


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